Influence of ischemia before vein grafting on early hyperplasia of the graft and the dynamic changes of the intima after grafting
- Equal contributors
1 Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Shanghai No6 People's Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University, 600 YiShan Road, Shanghai, 200233, China
2 Department of Biochemistry and molecular biology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, Peoples Republic of China
Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery 2012, 7:90 doi:10.1186/1749-8090-7-90Published: 24 September 2012
To investigate both the influence of ischemia before grafting on early hyperplasia of the vein grafts, and the dynamic changes of the intima after grafting in a rabbit model of vein graft disease.
We performed paired vein graft experiments under different ischemic conditions (15 vs. 60 min; 15 vs. 90 min) in the neck of the rabbits and compared the differences between the grafts. Clopidogrel, an anti-platelet agent, was administered before and after surgery. Twenty-eight days after the grafting procedure, the veins were evaluated microscopically. The dynamic changes of the intima after grafting were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy over time.
The vein grafts subjected to 60- or 90-min ischemia exhibited no differences compared to those subjected to 15-min ischemia in terms of the mean thickness of the intimal, medial, and adventitial layers of the graft. Similarly, there was no difference in the Ki-67 labeling index (proliferation marker) between the vein grafts. Vein grafts with 15-min ischemia lost endothelial cells (ECs) but healed by 3 days post graft, whereas vein grafts with 90-min ischemia suffered serious EC loss, which was restored with new ECs during days 2 to 14 post graft.
Ninety-minute ischemia before vein grafting can cause serious EC loss, but does not increase early intimal hyperplasia when clopidogrel is administered. Protecting the vein from ischemia and reperfusion injury preserves ECs.