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Open Access Research article

Transient left ventricular systolic dysfunction following surgical closure of large patent ductus arteriosus among children and adolescents operated at the cardiac centre, Ethiopia

Birkneh Tilahun1* and Endale Tefera2

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia

2 Departments of Pediatrics and Child Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery 2013, 8:139  doi:10.1186/1749-8090-8-139

Published: 31 May 2013

Abstract

Background

Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is one of the commonest congenital heart diseases that require closure within the first few months after birth. The residential area of patients affects the size of the PDA: living in highlands, like most places in Ethiopia, is a risk for having larger sized PDA. Closure of these congenital heart defects is usually performed at an early age in places where capable centers are available. In Ethiopia, closure of these defects is done on mission basis often at an older age. Recently, limited reports came about the occurrence of postoperative left ventricular systolic dysfunction (POLVD) following closure of PDA though full explanation is still lacking.

Objective

To determine the rate of and time to improvement of POLVD and the factors associated with it in children and adolescents who underwent surgical closure of PDA.

Method

All children and adolescents who underwent surgical closure of PDA at the Cardiac Center, Ethiopia (CCE) had postoperative follow up with echocardiography. Serial left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and fiber shortening (FS) values were recorded for all of them. SPSS 20 was used to analyze the data.

Results

A total of 36 children and adolescents who underwent surgical closure of PDA from January 2009 to December 2012 and who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were studied. Their mean age at intervention was 8.52 years (SD = 5.23 years), 77.80% were females. The mean duct size as determined by either echocardiography or intra-operative by the surgeon was 10.31 mm (SD = 3.20 mm). They were followed for a mean duration of 24.80 months (SD = 12.36 months) following surgical closure of PDA. The mean LVEF and FS decreased from 65.06% and 35.28% preoperatively to 54.83% and 28.40% post-operatively respectively. Fifteen (42.86%) of the patients had a post-operative LVEF of less than 55%. The mean time to normalization of systolic function was 5.11 weeks (SD = 3.30 weeks). Having an associated cardiac lesion was an independent predictor of POLVD.

Conclusions

We conclude that there is a high rate of POLVD following surgical closure of large PDA in highlanders. We recommend a serial and systematic follow up of these children postoperatively. Those with a significant cardiac dysfunction may need cardiac medications like Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEI).

Keywords:
Large PDA closure; Highland; Systolic Dysfunction