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Open Access Research article

Impact of prosthesis-patient mismatch on early and late mortality after aortic valve replacement

Bart M Koene2*, Mohamed A Soliman Hamad1, Wobbe Bouma2, Massimo A Mariani2, Kathinka C Peels3, Jan-Melle van Dantzig3 and Albert H van Straten1

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Catharina Hospital, Eindhoven, The Netherlands

2 Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands

3 Department of Cardiology, Catharina Hospital, Eindhoven, The Netherlands

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Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery 2013, 8:96  doi:10.1186/1749-8090-8-96

Published: 17 April 2013

Abstract

Background

The influence of prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) on survival after aortic valve replacement (AVR) remains controversial. In this study, we sought to determine the effect of PPM on early (≤30 days) and late mortality (>30 days) after AVR or AVR combined with coronary artery bypass grafting (AVR with CABG).

Methods

Between January 1998 and March 2012, 2976 patients underwent AVR (n= 1718) or AVR with CABG (n=1258) at a single institution. PPM was defined as an indexed effective orifice area (EOAI) ≤0.85 cm2/m2 and patients were divided into two groups based on the existence of PPM. Cumulative probability values of survival were estimated with Kaplan-Meier method and compared between groups using Breslow test. Univariate and multivariate independent predictors of early mortality were identified using logistic regression. Cox proportional-hazard regression analysis was used to determine univariate and multivariate independent predictors of late mortality.

Results

Early mortality was 6.7% in the PPM group vs 4.7% in the group with no PPM (p=0.013). Late mortality for the PPM group at 1, 5 and 10 years was 4%, 16% and 43%, respectively. Late mortality for the group with no PPM at 1, 5 and 10 years was 4%, 15% and 33% respectively. Independent predictors of early mortality included age, severely impaired left ventricular (LV) function, endocarditis, renal dysfunction, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time. Multivariate independent predictors of late mortality included age, severely impaired LV function, diabetes, peripheral vascular disease (PVD), renal dysfunction, history of a cerebrovascular accident (CVA), CPB time and a history of previous cardiac surgery. PPM was not an independent predictor of early or late mortality.

Conclusion

PPM is not an independent predictor of both early and late mortality after AVR or AVR combined with CABG.

Keywords:
Prosthesis; Heart valves; Aortic valve; Replacement; Prosthesis-patient mismatch; Statistics; Survival analysis